Lenders report a variety of data to the credit bureaus, which helps determine your creditworthiness and influences your credit score. The information they report is crucial in establishing your credit history and reflects how responsible you are in managing your credit and debt. Here are some of the key data points that lenders typically report to the credit bureaus:
Account Information: Lenders report details about each of your credit accounts, including credit cards, loans, mortgages, and lines of credit. This information includes the account type, account number, and the date the account was opened.
Payment History: Your payment history is one of the most critical factors in your credit score. Lenders report whether you make your payments on time, late, or if you've missed any payments. Consistent on-time payments positively impact your credit score, while late or missed payments can have a significant negative impact.
Credit Balances: Lenders report the outstanding balance on each of your credit accounts. High credit card balances relative to your credit limits can negatively affect your credit score, while lower balances can have a positive impact.
Credit Limit or Loan Amount: The credit limit on your credit cards or the original loan amount for installment loans is reported. This information provides context for your credit utilization, which is the ratio of your outstanding balances to your credit limits.
Account Status: Lenders report the current status of your accounts, indicating whether they are open, closed, or in collections. Closed accounts with a positive payment history can continue to benefit your credit score.
Account Type: Different types of credit accounts are reported, such as revolving accounts (credit cards) and installment accounts (loans). A diverse credit mix can have a positive impact on your credit score.
Credit Inquiries: Whenever you apply for new credit, the lender performs a hard inquiry on your credit report. These inquiries are reported and can temporarily lower your credit score. Multiple inquiries in a short period can raise concerns about credit risk.
Public Records: Lenders report public records, such as bankruptcies, tax liens, and civil judgments. These negative items can have a severe and long-lasting impact on your credit score.
It's important to note that not all lenders report to all three major credit bureaus (Equifax, Experian, and TransUnion). Some lenders may report to only one or two of them. As a result, your credit reports from each bureau may not be identical, and your credit scores may vary slightly between them.
Since the data reported to the credit bureaus significantly affects your credit score and financial standing, it's crucial to review your credit reports regularly for accuracy and address any errors or discrepancies promptly. By managing your credit responsibly and maintaining a positive payment history, you can build a strong credit profile and improve your creditworthiness over time.